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waste to energy

Waste to Energy

Belzona epoxy-based metal repair composites, coatings and linings are specifically formulated to repair and protect equipment in the Biomass / Waste to Energy Industry

Belzona offers a wide range of epoxy-based repair composites and coatings to repair and protect Biomass and Waste to Energy processing facilities and equipment from common problems occurring in the industry, including abrasion, erosion, corrosion and chemical attack. Belzona Solutions minimise downtime, labour and replacement costs and can extend the life of machinery and equipment for many years.

The Biomass Industry

Biomass is the name given to organic matter, such as plant materials and animal waste, which is used as a source of fuel.

The Biomass Industry consists of a process of extracting energy from carbon rich sources through the burning of highly  calorific matter, in order to convert into thermal and then electrical energy.​ There are numerous materials which are commonly burnt to extract energy from; these include wood, crops, landfill gas, alcohol fuels and household waste.

The Waste to Energy Sector

The process of extracting energy from waste matter through incineration​, gasification​, pyrolysis​ or anaerobic digestion. The energy from the waste is then converted to a transportable form of energy such as electricity, heat or fuel.

The most common way of extracting energy from waste is through incineration. The thermal energy released from the process is used to heat water inside a boiler to generate high-pressure steam.​ The high-pressure steam is then used to drive a steam turbine which converts the thermal energy to electrical energy.

The Basic Process Flow

The basic process of converting waste to energy comprises of four phases, and within each phase there are areas where Belzona Solutions can help combat against issues such as abrasion​, erosion​, corrosion and chemical attack​​. Below are just some of the examples of what Belzona can offer in the Waste to Energy sector.

Phase 1

This is the pre-treatment phase where organic matter and recyclates are separated from general waste and moisture is removed, which is then shredded to create Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) or homogenised to create Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF). 

During this phase, conveyor belts are used to transport and sort the recyclates. Rubber conveyor belts can suffer from tears, rips and damage from waste. Belzona’s 2000 series of elastomer repair products are suitable for the repair and protection of flexible components, such as conveyor belts.

Screw conveyors also suffer from repeated abrasion of the waste that passes through it. The Belzona 1800 series products can be used for the repair and lining of metal surfaces suffering from abrasive attack, such as on screw conveyors’ flights. Belzona Solutions reduce the effects of abrasion and extend the lifespan of assets.

Phase 2

Phase 2 is where the waste is received and stored in large pits prior to processing. This ensures that waste is always readily available and at hand for uninterrupted continuity of the process.

Flooring areas at Waste to Energy sites can encounter regular heavy traffic from lorries arriving to tip waste onto the concrete flooring area.

When lorries pull away from the unloading bays, leftover waste frequently falls onto the floor, which then requires a Wheel Loader to pick up the waste, and in the process of doing so, scrapes the floor’s substrate with its shovel/bucket, abrading the concrete surface. Belzona 4131 (Magma-Screed) is an epoxy repair composite for the resurfacing and protection of concrete and stone areas suffering from abrasion. It has a fast cure time in comparison to concrete, reducing downtime for facilities, and offers resistance to environmental attack and long-term abrasion. Additionally, the solvent-free property of the product ensures a reduced health and safety risk for operators.

In the loading and unloading areas of a facility, it is essential that a sufficient grip system is in place to ensure lorries do not skid on wet waste on the floor. Belzona 4411 (Granogrip) is a hard-wearing epoxy resin system for slip reduction, which ensures a safe solution that can prevent accidents from happening.

Phase 3

This is the thermal treatment conversion phase, where gas is introduced to start the incineration process. Once combustion starts breaking down the waste, thermal energy is released and converted to the desired form of energy such as electricity, heat, or fuel-based gases.

There are many pipes in the machinery involved within this phase, which are subject to wear and erosion, leading to downtime and loss of income. Belzona SuperWrap II, a composite repair system for restoring the strength of corroded, weakened, and holed pipes, can be used as a solution to repair and protect eroded pipes. It can be designed and applied to pipes ranging from 3 inches to 28 inches in diameter, making it the go-to solution for pipe repairs. Belzona SuperWrap II can be a more cost-effective option for a facility compared to the alternative of replacing a section of pipe.

Phase 4

This phase involves cleaning up the emissions from the combustion process and dealing with the residual waste from the non-combustibles. Within this phase, the bottom of FGD units can suffer from erosion-corrosion from lime, along with abrasion, which can result in a loss of wall thickness. Belzona 5892, provides excellent erosion-corrosion protection at elevated temperatures, along with resistance to a wide range of process chemicals.

Belzona Solutions are also able to repair and protect from general wear of a Waste to Energy facility, its structure, and equipment housed within it.

In all industries, health and safety of operators is paramount, example of this in the Waste to Energy sector would be a pipe insulation system which protects from direct heat contact burns. Belzona 5871, an anti-corrosion thermal insulation barrier, is a polymeric, solvent free system which is designed to be applied to metal pipework, ducting, and other industrial equipment. It is thermally insulating, providing protection against contact-burn injuries due to its “cool-to-touch” properties, eliminates corrosion/CUI, condensation, and anti-icing, improving safety and durability.

External structures, such as chimneys and roofs, present further potential application areas for Belzona Solutions to be used. These structures can suffer from weathering due to acid rain and fine ash particles. The latter being a greater issue due to the acidity of ash and the fact that it can drift with the wind and damage not only chimneys, but also roofs and cause corrosion. Belzona 5111 (a coating for the protection of metallic and masonry surfaces against chemical, abrasive, and corrosive attack) can be used to repair and protect chimneys and roofs and reduce the impact and corrosion that weather and ash can have on the structures.

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